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Morahan-Martin, Janet. (1998). "Women and Girls Last: Females and the Internet." [Actas]. IRISS. International Conference, Marzo1998, ():.
URL: http://sosig.ac.uk/iriss/papers/paper55.htm      
Materias:  Estudio de usuarios 
Resumen:

"The Internet has been dominated by males since its inception. Although use of the Internet by females has increased dramatically in the last few years, women and girls worldwide still use the Internet less and in different ways than males. Low Internet use by females not only gives them less access to information and services available online, but also can have negative economic and educational consequences. This paper discusses barriers to greater female use of the Internet: the Internet as new technology, the masculine Internet culture, and gendered communication styles online. Historically, females have been less likely to embrace new technology than females. Negative attitudes towards new technology underlie females reporting less computer experience as well as less computer competence and less favorable attitudes towards computers than males. Negative attitudes towards computers may be transferred to Internet use and attitudes. The Internet culture was developed by its earliest users, primarily male scientists, mathematicians, and technologically sophisticated computer hackers. This culture can be discomforting and alien to females. For example, netiquette norms tolerate uncensored hostility and even harassment which women may find offensive. Gendered communication differences also affect Internet interactions and lead to male domination found in Internet discussion groups. Research generally has shown that males' online communication is status enhancing and adversarial while females' online communication is supportive and tentative. Further, males dominate mixed-gender online discussion groups, and, when females approach domination, they are ignored, trivialized or criticized by males. These communication styles may deter greater female participation online."


Ray, Kathryn & Day, Joan. (1998). "Student attitudes towards electronic information resources." [Artículo]. Information Research, Octubre1998, 4(2):.
URL: http://informationr.net/ir/4-2/paper54.html      
Materias:  Estudio de usuarios 
Resumen:

"Students are increasingly expected to use electronic resources while at university. Studies were undertaken to determine the level of use of this type of resource, how students feel about various issues surrounding electronic resources and whether attitudes change dependent upon subject studied. 317 students across three universities completed questionnaires to determine level of useof various electronic information resources; ways in which theyfelt electronic resources had hindered or improved their academiccareer; if they perceived themselves capable of using the resources; would the standard of their work suffer without the use of these resources; and the various methods employed to acquire the skills necessary to use the sources. 155 students were questioned as part of a larger study IMPEL2, investigating the Impact on People of Electronic Libraries, supplemented by 162 students, questioned as part of an MA Dissertation, using the same methodology."


Spink, Amanda; Bateman, Judy & Jansen, Bernard. J. (1998). "Searching heterogeneous collections on the Web: behaviour of Excite users." [Artículo]. Information Research, Octubre1998, 4(2):.
URL: http://informationr.net/ir/4-2/paper53.html      
Materias:  Estudio de usuarios 
Resumen:

"As Web search services become a major source of information for a growing number of people, we need to know more about how users search heterogeneous collections using Web search engines. This paper reports the results from a major study exploring users' information searching behaviour on the EXCITE Web search engine. Three hundred and fifty-seven (357) EXCITE users responded to an interactive survey, including their search topics, intended query terms, search frequency for information on their topic, and demographic data. Results show that: users tend to employ simple search strategies, and conduct successive searches over time to find information related to a particular topic. Implications for the design of Web search services are discussed."


Chartron, Ghislaine; Casseyre, Pierrette & Marandin, Clarisse. (1997). "L'accès à la presse scientifique médicale: évolutions en cours." [Comunicación]. Journées d'études de la Société Française de Bibliométrie Appliquée, Mayo1997, ():.
URL: http://www.urfist.jussieu.fr/urfist/c97sfba.htm      
Materias:  Estudio de usuarios 
Resumen:

"L'accès à Internet dans de nombreuses universités, laboratoires de recherche et milieux professionnels impulse aujourd'hui de nouvelles dynamiques pour la circulation de l'information scientifique médicale. Le document scientifique électronique accessible par Internet devrait permettre: - un accès plus rapide aux informations - un accès démultiplié pour les étudiants et les chercheurs - un accès fédérant plusieurs types de ressources : bibliographies, textes d'articles, données de mesure... Mais il est évident que de nombreux problèmes techniques, juridiques et économiques doivent être négociés avant de parvenir à cette situation idéale. L'accès à la presse scientifique par des média électroniques est marquée par un ensemble d'étapes dont les plus récentes sont - le libre accès aux cédéroms bibliographiques dans les bibliothèques - l'acquisition de certains cédéroms pour le texte intégral des revues - actuellement l'accès aux banques bibliographiques par des interfaces Web (le phénomène est répandu en Amérique du nord alors qu'on observe très peu de sites en France) - et en gestation, l'accès aux périodiques en " texte intégral " sur Internet, réalisant en partie le concept de " bibliothèque numérique " pour le scientifique. Dans cette étude, nous tentons de rendre compte, de façon prospective, de cette quatrième étape, à savoir l'offre concernant les revues médicales accessibles sur Internet au début de l'année 1997 ainsi que des premiers projets initiés par les universités de médecine."


Golovchinsky, Gene. (1997). "Queries? Links? Is There a Difference?" [Actas]. CHI, Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Marzo1997, ():.
URL: http://www.acm.org/sigchi/chi97/proceedings/paper/gxg.htm      
Materias:  Estudio de usuarios 
Resumen:

"Hypertext interfaces are considered appropriate for information exploration tasks. The prohibitively expensive link creation effort, however, prevents traditional hypertext interfaces from being used with large coherent collections of text. Such collections typically require query-based interfaces. This paper examines a hybrid approach: the system described here creates anchors dynamically based on users' queries, and uses anchor selection as a query expansion mechanism. An experiment was conducted to compare browsing behavior in query- and link-based interfaces. Results suggest that query-mediated links are as effective as explicit queries, and that strategies adopted by users affect performance. This work has implications for the design of information exploration interfaces; the dynamic link algorithms described here are being incorporated into a Web server."


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